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Since memories are postulated to be represented by vastly interconnected networks of synapses in the brain, synaptic plasticity is one of the important neurochemical foundations of learning and memory (see Hebbian theory).

Plastic change often results from the alteration of the number of neurotransmitter receptors located on a synapse.

These allow Ca2 ions to diffuse through these channels and bind with synaptic vesicles within the terminal boutons.

The Hodgkin–Huxley model of an action potential in the squid giant axon has been the basis for much of the current understanding of the ionic bases of action potentials.Ionotropic receptors are a combination of a receptor and an ion channel.When ionotropic receptors are activated, certain ion species such as Na to enter the postsynaptic neuron, which depolarizes the postsynaptic membrane.Repolarization of the membrane potential continues, resulting in an undershoot phase or absolute refractory period.The undershoot phase occurs because unlike voltage-gated sodium channels, voltage-gated potassium channels inactivate much more slowly.

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